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Posted 2023-06-02 10:45:03 by Douglas Lewis

Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies

The QuantMig team of Profesor Mathias Czaika, Professor Marta Bivand Erdal and Dr Cathrine Talleraas have published an article in Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, entitled 'Exploring Europe's external migration policy mix: on the interactions of visa, readmission, and resettlement. The article can be found at

The key messages in the article are:

The article explores Europeís external migration mix, considering three policy instruments which form part of the EUís remote control of borders: (1) visa regulations managing entry and cross-border mobility, (2) readmission agreements facilitating assisted and forced return of migrants without legal right to remain, and (3) resettlement of refugees with refugee status via formalised programmes.

The article explores the degree and nature of these policies co-evolution. Based on a collation of migration policy data for 31 European countries between 1990 and 2020, we disentangle spatial, temporal, and categorical policy patterns and interactions.

The article finds strong evidence for spatial policy dependence across European countries for all three policy areas, but particularly visa policy; evidence for some categorical dependence between selected external policies within countries, but also between external policy instruments and other migration-relevant policies; and only weak or no evidence for temporal sequencing of external policy change.

The external migration policy mix appears heterogenous across different European states, but also within single European states, and vis-a-vis third country states, with whom various migration-relevant and externally oriented policies are negotiated.

Overall, the role of specific migration-relevant policies seems to be underestimated in strategic and overarching migration policymaking.


This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 870299 QuantMig: Quantifying Migration Scenarios for Better Policy. This document reflects the authors'view and the Research Executive Agency of the European Commission are not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

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